How They Form


INTRODUCTION
BLACK HOLES
NEUTRON STARS AND PULSARS
HOW THEY FORM
HOW WE DETECT THEM
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Q & A PAGES
RELATED LINKS
PRINTOUT
BOOKS


Black holes and neutron stars form when stars die. While a star is burning, the heat in the star pushes out and balances the force of gravity. When the star's fuel is spent, and it stops burning, there is no heat left to counteract the force of gravity. Whatever material is left over collapses in on itself. How much mass the star had when it died determines what it becomes. Stars about the same size as the Sun become white dwarfs, which glow from left over heat. Stars that have about 3 times the mass of the Sun compact into neutron stars. And a star with mass greater than 3 times the Sun's gets crushed into a single point, which we call a black hole.


Supernovae

A supernova explosion is usually associated with the formation of black holes and neutron stars. To understand what explodes and what collapses, we need to talk about what happens during a supernova explosion.

Young stars are hydrogen, and the nuclear reaction converts hydrogen to helium with energy left over. The left over energy is the star's radiation--heat and light. When most of the hydrogen has been converted to helium, a new nuclear reaction begins that converts the helium to carbon, with the left over energy released as radiation. This process continues converting the carbon to oxygen to silicon to iron. Nuclear fusion stops at iron. If you could slice a very old star in half, it may look (sort of) like this:



The star has layers of different elements. The outer layers of hydrogen, helium, carbon, and silicon are still burning around the iron core, building it up. Eventually, the massive iron core succumbs to gravity and it collapses to form a neutron star. The outer layers of the star fall in and bounce off the neutron core which creates a shock wave that blows the outer layer outward. This is the supernova explosion.


This Web page was written and is maintained by Chris Miller. Last updated 17 September 2003.
Copyright © 1998-2003 by Christopher Miller. Feel free to send comments or just say hello with e-mail. cmmiller@eclipse.net